Work Package A2(a)
Explorations of school exclusions and their social origins
Much is already known about the characteristics of pupils who are most at risk of formal school exclusions, such as pupils from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds and pupils with additional learning needs.
However, other characteristics often associated with school exclusions, such as ethnicity, appear to vary over time and place. The analysis in this work package attempts to examine some of the more nuanced patterns of permanent and temporary exclusions – including trajectories of formal exclusions over a pupil’s education lifecourse – and the characteristics of schools and areas that are associated with high or low rates of formal exclusions. This analysis is designed to complement the more qualitative work in the project on the experiences of pupils at risk of formal and informal exclusion.
Pupils differ significantly in terms of their individual characteristics and needs. It’s therefore important for schools to be able to identify and assess the level of need/disability, and provide for pupils with learning difficulties that call for special education provision, described as special education needs (SEN). Read more
School practices on discipline and punishment of disruptive behaviour can affect the exclusion rates being recorded and they have been shown to vary across different jurisdictions of the UK. These practices could be closely linked to and shaped by pupil-level characteristics and needs, including free school meals (FSM) eligibility and special education needs (SEN) provision rates in each school. Read more
Annual official reports published by the Welsh Government primarily focus on exclusion instances; their yearly trends and variations by key characteristics, such as ethnicity and reason for exclusion. However, there is a need to expand this analysis by focusing on excluded individuals and the potential consequences of school exclusions on pupil outcomes. Read more
There is evidence to suggest that school exclusions can have negative effects on children’s lives. Exclusions have been associated with poor educational outcomes, and long-term physical and mental health problems. We need to investigate how patterns of exclusions and characteristics of excluded pupils differ across time and can help to inform current understanding of possible risk factors. Read more