Long-term labour market and economic consequences of school exclusions in England: Evidence from two counterfactual approaches

Previous research suggests that school exclusion during childhood is a precursor to social exclusion in adulthood. Past literature on the consequences of school exclusion is, however, scarce and mainly focused on short-term outcomes such as educational attainment, delinquency, and mental health in early adolescence. Moreover, this evidence is based primarily on descriptive and correlational analysis, whereas robust causal evidence is required to best inform policy.

  • Joan E. Madia
  • Ingrid Obsuth
  • Ian Thompson
  • Harry Daniels
  • Aja L. Murray


British Journal of Educational Psychology

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